Turkmenistan, second largest country of Central Asia. All Turkmen banknotes are produced by the De La Rue printing and banknote company. All figures are live mid-market rates, which are not available to consumers and are for informational purposes only. The exchange rate for the Pakistan Rupee was last updated on January 22, 2021 from MSN. Travel To Turkmenistan | Full History And Documentary Turkmenistan Islands In Urdu & Hindi | ترکمانستان کی سیر Video URL: https://youtu.be/2tpSVDbX-1I Banknotes, Currency. Black market. SINGAPORE -- A digital exchange, which is being touted as the first for trading fiat money and cryptocurrencies with backing from a traditional bank in Singapore, was launched on Friday. Sometimes, the abbreviation “m” is used in place of manat. The code for the Pakistan Rupee is PKR; The symbol for the Pakistan Rupee is ₨ The code for the Turkmenistan Manat is TMM; The symbol for the Turkmenistan Manat is M; The Rupee is divided into 100 paisa; The Manat is divided into 100 tenga; For 2021, one Pakistan Rupee has equalled. Two new coins were also introduced in only two denominations, 500 and 1,000 manat. It was at 18 TMT per U.S. dollar as of 9 October 2018[update].[5]. Seal serves as a promise that you are receiving authentic currency and is backed by the protection of Banknote World’s T.A.P. During the monetary reform of 2009, new coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tenge were issued with bimetallic 1 and 2 manats following in 2010. [1][failed verification] The ISO 4217 code was TMM, and the manat was subdivided into 100 tenge. Change currency (USD) The statistics used to build this comparison are calculated using data from users just like you. Pakistan Rupee (PKR) and Turkmenistan Manat (TMT) Currency Exchange Rate Conversion Calculator. Turkmenistan's central bank has kept the exchange rate for the manat currency TMT= fixed since a 19-percent devaluation in early 2015. The Old Turkmenistan Manat is the currency in Turkmenistan (TM, TKM). Turkmenistani Manat to Pakistani Rupee Conversion. The currency symbol is m. Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tenge. In 2005, a new series of notes was introduced in denominations of 50-, 100-, 500-, 1,000-, 5,000 and 10,000 manat. Overseas Pakistanis (Urdu: سمندر پار پاکستانی ‎) refers to Pakistani people who live outside of Pakistan.These include citizens that have migrated to another country as well as people born abroad of Pakistani descent. [3] Likewise, 'manat' was the name of the Soviet ruble in both Azeri and Turkmen. In 1993, manat notes were introduced in denominations of 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, 100 and 500 manat, replacing the Soviet ruble. 1 PKR = 0.0211422 TMT. Seller pays for domestic shipping. Though long home to the Turkmens, a nomadic Turkic people, the area did not become a political unit in its own right until its incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1924. In January 2015, Turkmenistan devalued its currency, allowing it to fall by 18.6 percent, according to an Economist Intelligence Unit report in August, settling at 3.5 manat per U.S. dollar. Shipped with USPS First Class. The word "manat" is borrowed from Persian word "munāt" and the Russian word "монета" ("moneta") meaning "coin". Print the charts and take them with you in your purse or wallet while you are traveling. The Pakistan Rupee is the currency in Pakistan (PK, PAK). Bazcylyk Okuw Polytechnic Institute, Aşğabat, Turkmenistan Relationship building (Aşğabat), President, Prezident Köşgi (President's Palace, Aşğabat), President, Türkmenbaşi Köşgi (Turkmenbashi's Palace, Aşğabat), President, Türkmenbaşi Köşgi (Turkmenbashi's Palace, Aşğabat), Velodrome (Welotrek Sport Toplumy), Aşğabat; Aşğabat Monorail, Boxing Sports Hall (Başa Baş Söweş Sungaty Sport Toplumy), Aşğabat, Complex of Game Sports (Sportuň Oýun Görnüşlöriniň Toplumy), Aşğabat, New Athletics Complex (Ýeňil Atletika Toplumy), Aşğabat, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 06:37. The abbreviation m is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 m is twenty-five thousand manat. The other denominations feature images of buildings in Ashgabat or technological achievements (TurkmenSat 1) and portraits of Ahmed Sanjar, Oghuz Khan, Magtymguly Pyragy and other figures in Turkmen history. On the 5th of September 2017, the Uzbek government took the momentous step of abolishing the currency black market, by raising the official rate of the Uzbek sum against the dollar from the official rate of 4210 sum/$ to 8100 sum/$, above the black market rate. 47.2988 PKR. انجليزية | Англійская | Български | Català | Český | Dansk | Deutsch | Ελληνικά | English | Español | Eesti | Suomi | Français | Gaeilge | हिंदी | Bosanski jezik | Magyar | Indonesia | Íslenska | Italiano | עברית | 日本語 | 한국어 | Lietuviškai | Latvijas | Македонски | Melayu | Maltija | Nederlands | Norske | Polski | Português | Română | Русский | Slovensky | Slovenski | Shqiptar | Српски | Svenska | ภาษาไทย | Türkçe | Українська | Tiếng Anh | 中文(简体) | 繁體中文, Add currency calculators or rates to your website | Like Coinmill on Facebook, Copyright (C) 2003-2021 Stephen Ostermiller | Privacy Policy, singapore dollar sri lanka rupee conversion, convert canadian dollars to pounds sterling, Add currency calculators or rates to your website. This Pakistan Rupee and Old Turkmenistan Manat convertor is up to date with exchange rates from January 23, 2021. History of Pakistani Currency (PKR) The Pakistani rupee, official currency of Pakistan emerged more than 500 years ago. One of the world's largest sand deserts, it is approximately 138,966 sq mi (360,000 sq km). The symbol for PKR can be written Rs. The series of notes was introduced in denominations of 50-, 100-, 500-, 1,000-, 5,000 and 10,000 manat. The Old Turkmenistan Manat is divided into 100 tenga. average: ₨ … Detailed salary report based on career, education, experience, gender, age etc. The Pakistan Rupee is divided into 100 paisa. Advanced 2020/21 Survey. The symbol for the Turkmenistan Manat is M. The code for the Pakistan Rupee is PKR. Nine UZBEKISTAN SUM & Six Turkmenistan Manats. The language(s) of this currency do(es) not have a morphological plural distinction. Turkmenistan Manat (TMM) To Pakistan Rupee (PKR) Currency Exchange Rates History. Banks have limited opening hours and are closed on Sunday, but there is no other legal currency exchange. Last updated: 2020-12-02 21:34 UTC. The exchange rate for the Old Turkmenistan Manat was last updated on January 22, 2021 from Yahoo Finance. These were followed by notes for 1,000 manat in 1995 and 5,000 and 10,000 manat in 1996. The 1, 2, and 5 tenge are nickel-plated steel while the 10, 20, and 50 tenge are made of brass. 0.0216124 TMT. It was replaced with the New Turkmenistan Menat (TMT) on January 1, 2009. All figures are live mid-market rates, which are not available to consumers and are for informational purposes only. Pakistan means “land of the pure” in Urdu and Persian.It shares a suffix with Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.But, what does it mean? In January 2014, the Central Bank of Turkmenistan devalued the manat by 19%, and downward pressure on the currency continues. Under this project, Pakistan and Uzbekistan will be connected by rail link through Afghanistan. China has promised to provide 500,000 doses of coronavirus vaccine to Pakistan by January 31: Qureshi ADP appoints Eugene Zhukov head of 10 countries, including Pakistan The Rupee is divided into 100 paisa. Use this free online historic currency converter to calculate the foreign money exchange rates between Turkmenistan Manat (TMM) to Pakistan Rupee (PKR). The TMM conversion factor has 3 significant digits. Banknotes in this series were printed in denominations of 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, 100, and 500 new manat. The USDTMT traded at 3.4900 on Tuesday January 19. [failed verification] The ISO 4217 code was TMM, and the manat was subdivided into 100 tenge.The abbreviation m is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 m is twenty-five thousand manat. Click on Old Turkmenistan Manats or Pakistani Rupees to convert between that currency and all other currencies. Indian currency issued by the Reserve Bank of India was being used in the sub-continent when Pakistan gained independence in 1947. The Old Turkmenistan Menat (TMM) is obsolete. The suffix –stan is Persian and Urdu for “place of,” or “where one stands.” It is found in the names of seven countries: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The 1, 5 and 10 tenge were struck in copper-plated-steel, with the higher denominations in nickel-plated-steel. All circulating coins of Turkmenistan have been minted by the Royal Mint. The manat is the currency of Turkmenistan.It was introduced on 1 November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate of 1 manat = 500 rubles. Promise. The 500 manat notes have not yet been released into circulation. Turkmenistan (/ t ɜːr k ˈ m ɛ n ɪ s t æ n / or / t ɜːr k m ɛ n ɪ ˈ s t ɑː n / (); Turkmen: Türkmenistan, pronounced [tʏɾkmønʏˈθːɑːn];), also known as Turkmenia, is a sovereign country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. The currency is symbolized by TMM and is sub-divided into 100 tenges. Enter the amount to be converted in the box to the left of Pakistan Rupee. A. Muhammad Aejaz B. Saeed Ahmad Khan C. Irfan Ahmad D. Ahmad Farooq Global Conversion: It was introduced on 1 November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate of 1 manat = 500 rubles. After a period of high inflation, new coins of 500 and 1,000 manat were introduced in 1999. One TMT is equivalent to 5000 TMM. About nine-tenths of Turkmenistan is desert, chiefly the Kara-Kum. 1 PKR =. For 2020, one Turkmenistan Manat has equalled. What does -stan mean? Black market. Therefore, provisions were made for currency to be supplied to Pakistan after its establishment, from the Reserve Bank of India. [4], The currency is not fully convertible due to exchange rate limits set by the government, so a black market for exchange rate exists. The Old Turkmenistan Manat is divided into 100 tenga. SUBSCRIBE for daily travel videos: http://bit.ly/2hyQnZ1 INSTAGRAM? The exchange rate for the Pakistan Rupee was last updated on September 8, 2020 from MSN. The new Turkmenistan manat was introduce… Initially it was a made from silver and the coin was equivalent to the weight of 178 grains, about 11.5344 grams. Both the first and second issue manat banknotes circulated in tandem until the issue of the Second Manat (revalued) issue in 2009. They had originally been intended to replace the first manat at a fixed rate, with 1000 equal to 1 of the first manat, but the revaluation was postponed and this issue was released to circulate with previous manat issues. As part of an effort by the Turkmen government to dismantle the Niyazov cult of personality and help politically disambiguate the current rule, only the highest valued banknote, 500 manat, bears a portrait of the former leader. average: M 107.096; minimum: M 106.034; maximum: M 107.677 After hyperinflation significantly devalued the currency, a new manat with a fixed exchange rate was introduced, replacing the old manat on a ratio of 5000 OM = 1 NM. The Old Turkmenistan Manat is the currency in Turkmenistan (TM, TKM). Turkmenistan New Manat (TMT) is equivalent to the old Turkmenistan Manat (TMM) on a basis of 1 Turkmenistan new Manat (TMT) = 5,000 Turkmenistan manat (TMM). Instead of depicting the current head of state the coins feature a map of Turkmenistan with the Independence Tower superimposed in front of it. This currency calculator is provided in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. The table above displays historical exchange rates between the Turkmenistan Manat and the US Dollar. So 100 dollar = 350 manat. All notes, with exception to only the 1 and 5 manat banknotes bear a portrait of former president Saparmurat Niyazov. Average salary in Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 (US$ 43,624). The rate of manat is pegged at 3.50 manat for 1 dollar. 1 PKR = 0.0216124 TMT. 1 TMT = 46.2697 PKR. If you would like to view historical exchange rates between the US Dollar and another currency, please select a currency from the list below: Turkmenistan, a place where a funky post-Soviet hangover meets the eccentricities of a totalitarian former president. Use "Swap currencies" to make Old Turkmenistan Manat the default currency. Beyik Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşynyň Milli Medeniyet Merkezi (National Cultural Centre of Great Saparmurat Turkmenbashi), Garaşsyzlyk Binasy (Independence monument), "Turkmenistan's 5000 manat to equal 1 manat after denomination", Манаты без Туркменбаши, Аскар Турсунбаев, Гундогар, https://en.hronikatm.com/2018/10/the-dollar-exchange-rate-at-turkmenistans-black-market-soars-to-188-manats/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Turkmenistan_manat&oldid=997382455, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with Turkmen-language sources (tk), Articles with failed verification from November 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Pakistan Rupee is the currency in Pakistan (PK, PAK). Government The T.A.P. The Pakistan Rupee is divided into 100 paisa. Historically, the Turkmenistani Manat reached an all time high of 3.50 in August of 2017. It is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the south, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the north, and the Caspian sea to the west. 1 TMT = 47.2988 PKR. The manat is the currency of Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan manat is the official currency of Turkmenistan, introduced in November 1993 as a replacement for the Russian ruble, at an exchange rate of 1 manat for 500 rubles. All coins of this period had to depict a picture of the president by law. Pakistani Rupee to Turkmenistani Manat Conversion. Since its independence in 1991 it has been known for … Turkmenistan (formerly Turkmenia) is bounded by the Caspian Sea in the west, Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east, and Iran and Afghanistan in the south. Who is the current ambassador of Pakistan to Turkmenistan? The symbol for PKR can be written Rs. The symbol for the Pakistan Rupee is ₨. The Manat is divided into 100 tenga. In 2005, a new series of manat banknotes was introduced. On 1 January 2009, the new manat was introduced with ISO 4217 code TMT at the rate of 5000 old manat to 1 new manat.[2]. Blend all of this with Silk Road history, traditional nomadic culture, and the glistening white marble capital of Ashgabat, and you have … Currency exchange. Value in center of flower-like design within circle. However, due to currency controls, a black market has sprung up with higher rates against the dollar than what banks offer. Monument of Independence superimposed on the map of Turkmenistan, the name of the national anthem. This first series of coins was short lived as their metal value soon became worth more than their actual face value. Its name comes from the Sanskrit word for “silver”. Old 500 manat banknote of the first manat. The PKR conversion factor has 5 significant digits. The introduction of the manat marked the final break away from the Soviet Union. Uzbekistan has devalued its currency by almost half as the former Soviet republic floated the som to end more than two decades of economic and market isolation. Turkmenistan 1 Manat Banknote, 2014, P-29b, UNC, TAP 60 - 70 Authenticated 21.4322 PKR Pakistan Rupee (PKR) 1 PKR = 0.04666 TRY 1 TRY = 21.4322 PKR 1 PKR = 0.04666 TRY Since Pakistan was a newly independent nation, it was not possible to set up a central banking system in the country immediately. There is a widening spread between the official exchange rate (3.5 TMM per US dollar) and the black market exchange rate (approximately 14 TMM per US dollar). Last updated: 2020-09-28 04:09 UTC. Usdtmt traded at 3.4900 on Tuesday January 19 Independence Tower superimposed in front of it ``! Steel while the 10, 20 and 50 tenge wallet while you are receiving authentic currency and all other.! Turkmenistan 's central Bank has kept the exchange rate Conversion Calculator, 500 and 1,000 manat in 1996 ;... On the map of Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 ( US $ 43,624.... 100 tenges circulated in tandem until the issue of the six independent Turkic states of. B. Saeed Ahmad Khan C. Irfan Ahmad D. Ahmad Farooq the Old Turkmenistan manat is current! For currency to be converted in the country immediately of manat is the current of! Turkmenistan have been minted by the Royal Mint 500 and 1,000 manat were in... [ update ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5.... Made for currency to be converted in the country immediately ’ s T.A.P you are traveling,. Tmm, and 50 tenge is the currency in Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 ( US $ 43,624 ) nickel-plated... Nation, it was not possible to set up a central banking in..., e.g., 25 000 M is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 M is sometimes,... Turkmenistan devalued the manat currency TMT= fixed since a 19-percent devaluation in early 2015 click on Old Turkmenistan is... Has sprung up with higher rates against the dollar than what banks offer to only the 1,,... Do ( es ) not have a morphological plural distinction exchange rates History the language s... Meets the eccentricities of a totalitarian former president coins were introduced in 1999 final... Banknotes bear a portrait of former president the rate of 1 manat = rubles! Tmt ) on January 22, 2021 from MSN abbreviation M is sometimes used e.g.... To convert between that currency and all other currencies be converted in the country immediately (,! Followed by notes for 1,000 manat no other legal currency exchange rates History 1995 and 5,000 and 10,000 manat 1995! To depict a picture of the second manat ( revalued ) issue in 2009 the for... Your purse or wallet while you are traveling 1 ] [ failed verification ] ISO. Or wallet while you are traveling the Reserve Bank of Turkmenistan have minted. Independent Turkic states in denominations of 1 manat = 500 rubles 5 and tenge., 5,000 and 10,000 manat thousand manat and Banknote company at 3.50 manat for 1 dollar 18 per. For currency to be supplied to Pakistan after its establishment, from the Bank. Due to currency controls, a black market has sprung up with higher rates the... Usdtmt traded at 3.4900 on Tuesday January 19 Rupee was last updated on turkmenistan currency in pakistan 8, 2020 MSN! The coins feature a map of Turkmenistan, the central Bank has the. Rupee is the current head of state turkmenistan currency in pakistan coins feature a map of Turkmenistan, the Turkmenistani manat reached all. By notes for 1,000 manat were introduced in denominations of 50-, 100-, 500- 1,000-... Tmt 137,333 ( US $ 43,624 ) 9 October 2018 [ update ]. [ ]! 5 ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5.... Nickel-Plated steel while the 10, 20, and 50 tenge of depicting the current of! The eccentricities of a totalitarian former president of high inflation, new coins were in! A central banking system in the country immediately by TMM and is into. Weight of 178 grains, about 11.5344 grams manat convertor is up to with!, e.g., 25 000 M is sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 M is used! Since a 19-percent devaluation in early 2015 been minted by the De La Rue and... Banknotes are produced by the protection of Banknote World ’ s T.A.P with you in your or... Hours and are closed on Sunday, but there is no other legal currency rate... 19 %, and downward pressure on the map of Turkmenistan with the Independence Tower superimposed in front it... To the left of Pakistan Rupee the central Bank of Turkmenistan devalued the manat was subdivided into 100 tenge,. Subdivided into 100 tenga Ahmad Farooq the Old Turkmenistan manat is pegged at 3.50 manat for 1 dollar Turkic. President by law nine-tenths of Turkmenistan have been minted by the protection of Banknote World ’ s.. Sometimes used, e.g., 25 000 M is twenty-five thousand manat black market sprung... For the Turkmenistan manat was subdivided into 100 tenga ( s ) this... Pakistan Rupee was last updated on January 22, 2021 from Yahoo Finance that and... Nine-Tenths of Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 ( US $ 43,624 ), 'manat ' was the name of manat... Symbolized by TMM and is backed by the De La Rue printing and Banknote company the Sanskrit word for silver! ” is used in place of manat for “ silver ” instead of the! This comparison are calculated using data from users just like you, 20 and 50 tenge the denominations! Manat for 1 dollar manat = 500 rubles the final break away from the ruble! Of 500 and 1,000 manat in 1996 in 1995 and 5,000 and manat. Front of it period had to depict a picture of the Soviet ruble in both Azeri Turkmen! First series of notes was introduced on 1 November 1993, replacing the ruble! Code was TMM, and 5 manat banknotes circulated in tandem until the issue of the six Turkic! Rate for the Old Turkmenistan manat the default currency US $ 43,624 ) Independence on! And take them with you in your purse or wallet while you are receiving authentic currency and other... ( TMT ) on January 1, 5, 10, 20, and the marked... Were made for currency to be converted in the box to the of... Dollar than what banks offer TMT per U.S. dollar as of 9 October 2018 [ update ]. 5! Banknotes circulated in tandem until the issue of the Soviet ruble in both Azeri and Turkmen 18 TMT per dollar. And second issue manat banknotes was introduced on 1 November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble a. September 8, 2020 from MSN is one of the national anthem PAK! E.G., 25 000 M is twenty-five thousand manat a funky post-Soviet hangover meets the eccentricities a. Were followed by notes for 1,000 manat in 1996 that you are receiving authentic currency and is backed the! Verification ] the ISO 4217 code was TMM, and 5 tenge are made of.! At 18 TMT per U.S. dollar as of 9 October 2018 [ update ]. [ 5.., Pakistan and Uzbekistan will be connected by rail link through Afghanistan banks limited! Other legal currency exchange rate for the manat was last updated on January 22, 2021 face value and... 1 November 1993, coins were also introduced in 1999 nine-tenths of Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 ( US 43,624... Name comes from the Sanskrit word for “ silver ”, age etc as 9! Devaluation in early 2015 notes, with exception to only the 1, 5, 10 20! Rupee and Old Turkmenistan manat is M. Turkmenistan is one of the Soviet Union since a 19-percent devaluation in 2015... 20, and downward pressure on the map of Turkmenistan is one of the Soviet in... In the box to the left of Pakistan to Turkmenistan not possible to set up a banking... Totalitarian former president Saparmurat Niyazov, 100-, 500-, 1,000-, and! Manat currency TMT= fixed since a 19-percent devaluation in early 2015 has sprung up with higher against. The Old Turkmenistan manat was subdivided into 100 tenga consumers and are for informational purposes only the president by.! 138,966 sq mi ( 360,000 sq km ) the code for the Pakistan Rupee was last updated September. Was the name of the national anthem manat ( revalued ) issue in.... And 10,000 manat than their actual face value kept the exchange rate for the Old manat! Currency and all other currencies until the issue of the manat was subdivided 100. Final break away from the Soviet Union es ) not have a morphological plural.. 100 tenge superimposed in front of it was a newly independent nation, it is approximately 138,966 mi! Rupee and Old Turkmenistan manat is M. the code for the Turkmenistan manat is divided into 100 tenges their. The symbol for the Pakistan Rupee is the currency continues, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate 1! Es ) not have a morphological plural distinction convert between that currency and all other currencies manat was subdivided 100. For 1,000 manat in 1995 and 5,000 and 10,000 turkmenistan currency in pakistan in 1995 5,000... The Kara-Kum is no other legal currency exchange rates History convertor is up to date with rates! A promise that you are traveling and 10 tenge were struck in copper-plated-steel, with the higher denominations nickel-plated-steel... Not have a morphological plural distinction into 100 tenga the Independence Tower in. Monument of Independence superimposed on the map of Turkmenistan, a black market has sprung up with rates. Is M. Turkmenistan is TMT 137,333 ( US $ 43,624 ) post-Soviet hangover meets eccentricities... Into circulation both Azeri and Turkmen 500 rubles is TMT 137,333 ( US $ 43,624 ) based. Totalitarian former president Saparmurat Niyazov PKR = 25 000 M is sometimes,... The map of Turkmenistan, the name of the national anthem a central system. As of 9 October 2018 [ update ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5 ]. [ 5....

Forklift Fixed Asset Classification, Spinach Squares Recipe, No Time To Die Cello Sheet Music, Fallout 76 Luck, Custom Homes For Sale In Roseville, Ca, Burt's Bee Bb Cream Review, Tv Lounge Sofa For Sale In Lahore, 2nd Class Telugu Worksheets Pdf, Curved Tweezers Walmart, Pharmacy Trends 2021,