Radak assumes that he did. However, you also were willing to die rather than face heat. Instead, they maintain that Jonah was forecasting the insincere (in Jonah’s opinion) repentance of the Ninevites. 18:4, 20). 1:15, 16, 19; 2:7, 11, 13; 3:18; 5:3; 7:16; 9:1, 13; 10:3. For this reason, it is important for them to learn about the techniques used to convey political messages and attitudes. He remained an “Ivri” to the very end. It was asked of prophecy: what is the punishment for a sinner? Also means "peace" as the dove is a symbol of peace.  This contrast with the sailors was most important to Jonah; therefore, the narrator placed only these words in his direct quotation. Abarbanel (followed by Malbim) submits that Jonah feared the future destruction of Israel by Assyria, of which Nineveh was the capital (cf. Moreover, since the Ninevites did repent, they obviously believed Jonah to be a true prophet.  Simon, JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah, introduction pp.  Regardless of its origins, however, Jonah’s prayer appears integral to the book, and likely contains one of the keys to unlocking the overall purposes of the narrative.  See further discussion and critique of the aforementioned views in Uriel Simon, The JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999), introduction pp. In this lesson, high school students learn to evaluate political cartoons for their meaning, message, and persuasiveness. For Jonah, however, true justice required punishing even the penitent Ninevites because they still were pagans. These scholars understand Jonah’s protest as a rejection of the very idea of repentance. .„By Hungerford . Afraid of God, the sailors finally tossed Jonah into the sea, and the water immediately grew calm. Jonah definition: a Hebrew prophet who, having been thrown overboard from a ship in which he was fleeing... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples He praised God, ending with the eerily prophetic statement, "Salvation comes from the Lord." Jonah still was the Ivri he proclaimed himself to be in 1:9, sharply contrasting himself with the pagans he encountered, and thereby remaining distanced from the God he knew would have compassion on them. Rob Barrett (“Meaning More than They Say: The Conflict between Y-H-W-H and Jonah,”, Ibn Ezra counters that Jonah specifically stayed near Nineveh so that he would be ready to go with a second command. God added a surprising variable when explaining His sparing of the Ninevites. Aside from downplaying the role of the sailors in chapter 1, Uriel Simon sidesteps Jonah’s prayer by contending that it was not an original part of the story. (Jon. Jonah was callous to the lives of the Ninevites—he wanted to see them destroyed. Ibn Ezra on 1:1). Ironically, then, Jonah’s profound fear and love of God are what caused him to flee initially, and to demand that God take his life. Makkot 2:6 [31d]). They speculate that the whale's stomach acid bleached Jonah's hair, skin, and clothing a ghostly white. Perhaps Israel would be inspired to repent in light of Nineveh’s repentance. Any girl that gets him is very lucky. Sign up below for our newsletters and receive a pdf of Conversations, Issue 12: Reclaiming Orthodox Judaism, The Talmud ascribes the composition of the Twelve Prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly (. Cf.  For fuller exploration of this and related disparities, see Hayyim Angel, “The Uncertainty Principle of Repentance in the Books of Jonah and Joel,” in Angel, Revealed Texts, Hidden Meanings: Finding the Religious Significance in Tanakh (Jersey City, NJ: Ktav-Sephardic Publication Foundation, 2009), pp. Why would the narrator frame Jonah’s statement this way? The Book of Jonah, usually called Jonah, is a book of the Old Testament of the Bible. Some (for example, Ibn Ezra, Abarbanel and Malbim) conclude that Jonah must have repented, since God ordered the fish to spew Jonah out, and Jonah subsequently went to Nineveh. What does Jonah mean? Jonah found God's order unbearable. Rashi, Kara, and R. Eliezer of Beaugency. . Rabbi Marc D. Angel answers your questions on our YouTube channel! For fuller exploration of this and related disparities, see Hayyim Angel. Though not a compelling peshat comment, Abarbanel’s insight is conceptually illuminating regarding the overall purpose of chapter 1. This realization tortured him to the point of death. 148-161. Who knows but that God may turn and relent? It was asked of God: what is the punishment for a sinner? In his first daily cartoon, Herb Block deplored the clear-cutting of America's virgin forests and foreshadowed the economic wasteland to come in the next decade. It also appeared in Yom Kippur Reader (New York: Tebah, 2008), pp. Additionally, there is no mention of Israel or its king in the story. Jonah did not care about the outstandingly ethical behavior of the sailors nor the impressively penitent Ninevites. Jonah still was the. This time Jonah obeyed God. She replied, Misfortune pursues sinners (Prov. 4:2). Jonah’s spiritual attainments were obviously far superior to those of the sailors or the people of Nineveh – he most certainly could tell his right hand from his left. Cf. A whale swallows him. It appears that this theme lies at the heart of the book, creating an insurmountable conflict between Jonah and God. Jonah was unwilling to accept God’s mercy even to the most ethically perfected pagans because that manifestation of mercy was antithetical to Jonah’s desired conception of God. Also, the meaning … For I know that You are a compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in kindness, renouncing punishment. As in chapter 1, Jonah’s contrasting himself with pagans is the climactic theme of his prayer in chapter 2.  This chapter is adapted from Hayyim Angel, “‘I am a Hebrew!’: Jonah’s Conflict with God’s Mercy Toward Even the Most Worthy of Pagans,” Jewish Bible Quarterly 34:1 (2006), pp. Surprisingly, the Ninevites believed Jonah's message and repented, wearing sackcloth and covering themselves in ashes. She replied, The person who sins, only he shall die (Ezek. Let There Be Light. Pronounce Jonah [ 2 syll. After all, they could not distinguish their right from their left in the sense that they served false deities. Ben-Menahem further suggests that the text does not report Jonah’s response to the captain so that his dramatic proclamation in 1:9 could appear as his first words recorded in the book. Is there some area of your life in which you are defying God, and rationalizing it? Seeking another approach, the twentieth century scholars Yehoshua Bachrach. On September 30, 1938, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain disembarked from his plane at Heston Aerodrome after returning to Britain from Munich. Additionally, there is no mention of. 66-68.  Ben-Menahem, Da’at Mikra: Jonah, pp. Jonah is used chiefly in the English, French, Scandinavian, and Spanish languages, and its origin is Hebrew. 7-12. View.  Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer 9, cited by R. Saadyah (Emunot ve-De’ot 3:5), Rashi, Kara, Radak, and R. Isaiah of Trani. The decisions students make about social and political issues are often influenced by what they hear, see, and read in the news. Aside from downplaying the role of the sailors in chapter 1, Uriel Simon sidesteps Jonah’s prayer by contending that it was not an original part of the story.  God has little patience for human immorality, but can tolerate moral people with misguided beliefs. 7-9. But prophecy also causes increased anguish, as the prophet apprehends the infinite gap between God and humanity more intensely than anyone else. Title: Microsoft Word - FDR Political Cartoons.doc … 207-223. He did not realize the value of human life given that all people are created in the image of God. . Jonah did not care about the outstandingly ethical behavior of the sailors nor the impressively penitent Ninevites. And should I not care about Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than a hundred and twenty thousand persons who do not yet know their right hand from their left, and many beasts as well!” (4:10-11). Adopting a middle position, Sforno suggests that Jonah repented, but the prayer included in the book is a psalm of gratitude after Jonah already was saved.  For further analysis of the interrelationship between Joel, Jonah, and Exodus 34, see Thomas B. Dozeman, “Inner Biblical Interpretation of Y-H-W-H’s Gracious and Compassionate Character,” JBL 108 (1989), pp. Jonah was in the giant fish three days. Yonah (Hebrew) is an original form of Jonah. Ibn Ezra on 1:1).  Cf. Not only was Nineveh known for its wickedness, but it was also the capital of the Assyrian empire, one of Israel's fiercest enemies. Isn’t this just what I said when I was still in my own country? Isn’t this just what I said when I was still in my own country? The story of Jonah and the Whale, one of the oddest accounts in the Bible, opens with God speaking to Jonah, son of Amittai, commanding him to preach repentance to the city of Nineveh. IA Clear Track! How, then, can you expect to understand God’s attributes? Although it had seemed from chapter 3 that the Ninevites had saved themselves with their repentance, God suddenly offered a different reason. March 1938. But in the end, he learned a valuable lesson about the Lord's mercy and forgiveness, which extends beyond Jonah and Israel to all people who repent and believe. Jonah was a British comic strip series, published in the magazine The Beano, drawn by Ken Reid.It first appeared in issue 817, dated 15 March 1958. This political cartoon was published in a black Chicago newspaper, the Chicago Defender, on January 27, 1934, during the first term of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency.  Yehoshua Bachrach, Yonah ben Amitai ve-Eliyahu: le-Hora’at Sefer Yonah al pi ha-Mekorot (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: The Religious Department of the Youth and Pioneering Division of the Zionist Organization, 1967), p. 51. Rob Barrett (“Meaning More than They Say: The Conflict between Y-H-W-H and Jonah,” JSOT 37:2 (2012), p. 244) suggests additional ironies in Jonah’s prayer: Jonah proclaims that he has called out to God (2:3), but in fact has refused to call out to Nineveh or to God while on the boat. Download 66 Jonah Cartoon Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! However, there is no indication of repentance in Jonah’s prayer. He walked through Nineveh proclaiming that in forty days the city would be destroyed. A revitalised Assyria after 745 would not seem to fit the crisis situation portrayed in the book. Jonah’s stark silence at the end of the book reflects the gulf between God and himself. We noted earlier that the same contrast may be said of the captain of the ship, who sounded like a prophet while Jonah rebelled against God. After waiting three days inside the fish, Jonah finally prayed to God. They who cling to empty folly forsake their own welfare, but I, with loud thanksgiving, will sacrifice to You; what I have vowed I will perform. Bearing an agreement signed by Adolf Hitler, he addressed the assembled crowd to ensure them that he had secured “peace for our time.” Ever since this statement has stood as the ultimate expression of the naivety of the policy of appeasement: the … See further discussion and critique of the aforementioned views in Uriel Simon, See further critique of Simon in David Henshke, “The Meaning of the Book of Jonah and Its Relationship to Yom Kippur,” (Hebrew). Although the Ninevites had misguided beliefs, God had compassion on them without expecting that they become monotheists. Throughout the Jonah definition is - an Israelite prophet who according to the account in the book of Jonah resisted a divine call to preach repentance to the people of Nineveh, was swallowed and vomited by a great fish, and eventually carried out his mission. God scolded Jonah for being concerned about a vine, but not about Nineveh, which had 120,000 lost people. It was asked of God: what is the punishment for a sinner? Isn’t this just what I said when I was still in my own country? Did Jonah obey God when he went to Nineveh? Jonah Origin and Meaning. The book is primarily concerned with the prophet Jonah, whom the book is named for. There is a paradoxical recognition that the closer one comes to God, the more one becomes conscious of the chasm separating God’s wisdom from our own. Only after this episode did God send him on a more favorable prophetic mission to Israel (II Kings 14:23-27). 127-131. Jonah was not caught up in the details of this specific prophecy; rather, he was protesting the very existence of repentance, preferring instead that God mete out immediate punishment to sinners. Jonah states that God saved him because he turned to God, while he is fleeing God’s command. "JONAH," 19381 . FRANKLIN'S EXPERIMENT. God commanded the whale, and it vomited the reluctant prophet onto dry land. Rather than obey God’s directive, Jonah elected to martyr himself on behalf of his people. Of the twelve, Joel is the most difficult to date, and we will discuss him in the fourth chapter on the Twelve Prophets. “The Uncertainty Principle of Repentance in the Books of Jonah and Joel,” in Angel, Revealed Texts, Hidden Meanings: Finding the Religious Significance in Tanakh. Remarkably, the captain sounds like a prophet when addressing Jonah— “How can you be sleeping so soundly! (J.T. Franklin D. Roosevelt & New Deal Political Cartoons “A Clear Track” by Hungerford March 14, 1933, Newark ... February 18, 1936, Kansas City Star “‘Jonah’” March 9, 1938, Mansfield, Ohio News Journal . According to this view, God allowed Jonah out of the fish to teach him a lesson, not because he had repented. However, the Book of Jonah portrays Nineveh as a typological Sodom-like city-state, not as the historical capital of Assyria. In their reading of the book, the sailors are only tangential to their understanding of the story, which specifically concerns Nineveh as the Assyrian capital. Abarbanel (followed by Malbim) submits that Jonah feared the future destruction of Israel by Assyria, of which Nineveh was the capital (cf. It was asked of prophecy: what is the punishment for a sinner? This article by Rabbi Hayyim Angel originally appeared in his book, Vision from the Prophets and Counsel from the Elders: A Survey of Nevi’im and Ketuvim (New York: OU Press, 2013), pp. Jonah, on the other hand, displays none of these lofty qualities. God had compassion on them and did not destroy them. See more. Morgan's Charges . To paraphrase God’s response: You, Jonah, wanted to die for the highest of ideals. The name Jonah is a boy's name of Hebrew origin meaning "dove". Stubbing His Toe. March 1938. First, they tried rowing to shore, but the waves got even higher. He walked through Nineveh proclaiming that in forty days the city would be destroyed. God commands everything in his Creation, from the weather to a whale, to carry out his plan. Jellinek, p. 102, quoted in Simon, JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah, introduction p. 12. Outraged by God’s sparing of Nineveh, Jonah revealed that he had fled initially because he knew that God would not punish the Ninevites. (Rashi on Jon. 140,304,902 stock photos online. . Enlarge. In response, God sent a violent storm, which threatened to break the ship to pieces. He doesn’t do what God wants him to do, sailing away in a different direction. ", Prophet Jonah - Reluctant Mouthpiece for God, Book of Daniel From the King James Version of the Bible, Major and Minor Prophetic Books of the Bible, Defining the Role of Prophets in the Bible, Learn the Meaning of Numbers in the Bible, M.A., English Composition, Illinois State University, B.S., English Literature, Illinois State University. 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