OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) [86] Germanium in the environment has little or no health impact. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/germanium, World of Chemicals - Clemens Winkler – Discoverer of Germanium Element, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Germanium, germanium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. Germanium (Ge), a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. CAS no. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. 76Ge is the least common with a natural abundance of approximately 7%. Other names germanium(II) selenide. Winkler was able to isolate the new element in 1886 and found it similar to antimony. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. [49], At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. 0.5 His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. For example, germanium tetrachloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colorless fuming liquid boiling at 83.1 °C by heating the metal with chlorine. [35] The germanes are less volatile and less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues. [26] CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. Among the acids, only concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid or aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) attack germanium appreciably. Pure germanium suffers from the forming of whiskers by spontaneous screw dislocations. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. Corrections? − Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. making it one of the purest materials ever obtained. Germanium compounds in which germanium is in the +2 oxidation state are well characterized as solids, and in general they are readily oxidized. Germanium hydride and germanium tetrahydride are very flammable and even explosive when mixed with air. [65] The highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for the production of germanium glass. 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