Observing the tracer from the first round in battle, the average, calm gunner might achieve the firing range accuracy shown in the second column with the second round fired at the same target. The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. The German 88mm Flak has to be considered the most famous artillery piece of World War II. III radars. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. [citation needed] While the US and Italian 90 mm were also used as anti-tank guns—the American gun being in use on their M36 tank destroyer and M26 Pershing heavy tank—their use was considerably more limited than the German 88 due to German tanks being primarily used defensively by 1944 and allied tanks being used en masse for the attack. 8.8 cm Flak als anti-tankgeschut. Called wolfram in German, tungsten is a very dense and hard metal. Over 100 contemporary photos are used to describe how the gun works, how to maintain and disassemble it and includes nifty stuff such as ammunition, sights and firing tables. Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8.8 cm gun, which was further developed into the anti-tank and tank destroyer 8.8 cm PaK 43 gun used for the Elefant and Jagdpanther, and turret-mounted 8.8 cm KwK 43 heavy tank gun of the Tiger II. Between them and Italian 155 mm (6-inch) shore batteries the destroyer HMS Sikh was so severely damaged that she sank while being towed by HMS Zulu. With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity– allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. Initially these were APCR (armor piercing composite rigid) projectiles with a tungsten core. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. Penetration of the Pzgr. Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany, Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä, Finland, Flak 36 gun in position at Bir Hakeim, North Africa, June 1942, Flak 36 battery in firing position, Germany, 1943, FuMG 39 “Würzburg” radar at an anti-aircraft position on the Atlantic Wall, France, 1942, 8.8 cm Flak 36 with Flak Rohr 18 barrel at the, Comparison with similar anti-aircraft guns, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, In German, the comma is used as the decimal separator, hence official punctuation was actually "8,8 cm" and not "8.8 cm". When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition. pp 293. Operation Barbarossa: the Complete Organisational and Statistical Analysis, and Military Simulation Volume IIB. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. Hitting aircraft in flight with a projectile is a very difficult technical problem. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. The 88mm saw action wherever the Third Reich did battle. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. 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